What are guide tones and how to use them

What are guide tonesWhat are guide tones ? They are the notes in a chord which lead or give harmonic pull toward the next chord, these are an excellent way to study and absorb the sound of any chord progression. Guide tones are used to outline chord progressions in an improvisation. They are most of the time the 3rd and the 7th because this is what determines whether a chord is major, minor, or dominant. 

By working on guide tones you’ll learn how to target important notes in each chord. This jazz guitar lesson explains how to solo over common jazz progressions using and connecting the guide tones.

What are guide tones - Scales and chords

Guide tones are made up of the third and the seventh degree of the scale they belong to. This charts shows you the relation between the main scalestriads, seventh chords and their guide tones.

Degrees 1 2 3 4 5 6 7
C Major scale C D E F G A B
C major triad C x E x G x x
C major seventh chord C x E x G x B
Guide tones x x E x x x B

 

Degrees 1 2 b3 4 5 6 b7
C minor scale C D Eb F G A Bb
C minor triad C x E x G x x
C minor seventh chord C x Eb x G x Bb
Guide tones x x Eb x x x Bb

 

Degrees 1 2 3 4 5 6 b7
C mixolydian scale C D E F G A Bb
C major triad C x E x G x x
C dominant seventh chord C x E x G x Bb
Guide tones x x E x x x Bb

 

Degrees 1 b2 b3 4 b5 b6 b7
C locrian scale C Db Eb F Gb Ab Bb
C half diminished triad C x Eb x Gb x x
C m7b5 chord C x Eb x Gb x Bb
Guide tones x x Eb x Gb x Bb

 

Degrees 1 2 b3 4 b5 #5 6 (bb7) 7
C diminished scale C D Eb F Gb Ab A B
C diminished triad C x Eb x Gb x   x
C diminished seventh chord C x Eb x Gb x A  
Guide tones x x Eb x Gb x A B

 

Depending on the quality of some chords, notes other can be made guide tones as the sixth, the fifth or the ninth.

Guide tones in II V I chord progression

This basic II V I chord progression demonstrates how guide tones work. As you can see, the 7th degree (C) of Dm7 leads to the third degree (B) of G7 by a half step. The 7th of G7 (F) leads to the third of Cmaj7 (E) by a half step again. While comping it is important to play the Guide Tones because they spell out the quality of the chord and that is what the soloing musician is basing their approach on.

Guide tones - II-V-I progression

Soloing using guide tones - Voice leading - II V I sequence

The guide tone technique can be applied to any progression to outline the harmony. Here are some easy examples of jazz lines based on one of the most important and commonly used guide tones, the b7 to 3 movement into a II-V-I progression. The b7 of Dm7 is C which moves to third of G7 (B) then the b7 of G7 (F) moves to the third of Cmaj7 (E).

Guide tones jazz guitar lick 1

Guide tones jazz guitar lick 2

Guide tones jazz guitar lick 3

Guide tones - Minor II V I - Voice leading

Here are two minor II V I jazz guitar using guide tones. The b7 of Dm7b5 is C which moves to third of G7b9 (B) then the b7 of G7 (F) moves to the minor third of Cmaj7 (Eb).

Guide tones lick 6 minor ii v i 4

Guide tones lick 7 minor ii v i 2

Guide tones - I IV - Voice leading

Theses two I IV sequences can be found on bar 1 & 2 of a basic blues progression. The b7 of C7 is Bb which moves to the third of F7 (A).

Guide tones lick 5 I-IV sequence

Guide tones lick 4 I-IV sequence

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