How To Use Triad Chords On Guitar - Comping Lesson
- By Stef Ramin
- On 10/08/2018
- 6 comments
Triads are one of the first harmonic tools to study. They are very useful for comping and chordal enrichment. Learning close and open triad voicings increase your harmonic knowledge and at the same time help you discover your fretboard.
In this lesson you will see the main triad chord shapes including root positions and inversions. You will also find some ideas on how to use triads over a II V I sequence, in order to create interesting melodic movement in your comping.
Here is a brief introduction. A harmonic triad is a combination of three notes (root, third and fifth) stacked vertically in thirds. After having read all that follows, you should be able to spell the four qualities of triads and play them in root positions and inversions whatever the key. There are four main types of triads, you'll find them below.
Minor triads are made up of two thirds, one major third and one minor third.
Interval pattern is R - b3 - 5. You can see a D minor triad below.
Diminished triads are made up with a root (1), a minor third (b3) and a diminished fifth (b5).
As you can see with D diminished below, they are built by stacking two minor thirds
An augmented triad is built with two major thirds stacked. The interval pattern is 1 - 3 - #5.
As its name implies it contains an augmented fifth. C augmented is shown below.
One of the fundamental theoretical elements is to know how to harmonize the major scale in thirds in order to obtain seven triads built on each degree. By stacking thirds on each interval of a major scale, you get three major triads (degrees I, IV and V), three minor triads (degrees II, III and VI) and a diminished triad on the VII degree.
|C major scale||C||D||E||F||G||A||B|
You can notice that there is no augmented triad in the harmonization of the major scale. So, they will not be used in the exercises below. Please note that augmented triads can be found on the harmonized degree III of the harmonic minor scale, on the sixth degree of the harmonic major scale and on the third degree of the melodic minor scale.
Before learning how to use triads over a II V I sequence, here are some triad guitar shapes that will serve as the basis for the exercises below (except augmented forms). All the triads below are closed voiced, meaning that all the notes are placed as close together as possible, they are all included in one octave.
Each triad produces two inversions with third or fifth in the bass. Each neck diagram provides three possibilities to play a triad.
Major Triad Close Voicings
|Major triad Root voicing||R||3||5|
|1st inversion (third in the bass)||3||5||R|
|2nd inversion (fifth in the bass)||5||R||3|
Minor Triad Close Voicings
|Major triad Root voicing||R||b3||5|
|1st inversion (minor third in the bass)||b3||5||R|
|2nd inversion (fifth in the bass)||5||R||b3|
Diminished Triad Close Voicings
|Major triad Root voicing||R||b3||b5|
|1st inversion (minor third in the bass)||b3||b5||R|
|2nd inversion (diminished fifth in the bass)||b5||R||b3|
Augmented Triad Close Voicings
|Major triad Root voicing||R||3||#5|
|1st inversion (third in the bass)||3||#5||R|
|2nd inversion (augmented fifth in the bass)||#5||R||3|
What are open triads? It means that the notes are spread over more than one octave. Open triads are also called "spread triads". They can be very useful for composition or arrangement.
They are also very helpful to explore the guitar neck more in-depth. Each triad generates three open shapes including a root voicing and two inverted voicings.
Concerning the diagrams below, root voicings are represented in blue, 1st inversions are in red and 2nd inversions are in green. Please note that some of the shapes are a little bit stretchy, don't hesitate to experiment your own positions.
Major Triad Open Voicings
|Root voicing (root in the bass)||R||5||3|
|1st inversion (third in the bass)||3||R||5|
|2nd inversion (fifth in the bass)||5||3||R|
Minor Triad Open Voicings
|Root voicing (root in the bass)||R||5||b3|
|1st inversion (minor third in the bass)||b3||R||5|
|2nd inversion (fifth in the bass)||5||b3||R|
Diminished Triad Open Voicings
|Root voicing (root in the bass)||R||b5||b3|
|1st inversion (minor third in the bass)||b3||R||b5|
|2nd inversion (dim. 5th in the bass)||b5||b3||R|
Augmented Triad Open Voicings
|Root voicing (root in the bass)||R||#5||3|
|1st inversion (third in the bass)||3||R||#5|
|2nd inversion (augmented fifth in the bass)||#5||3||R|
Now let's get to the essential point of this lesson : How to extract triads from seventh chords in order to use them over a common progression used in jazz, the II V I sequence. The first reflex would be to take the first three notes of each tetrad chords which, are obviously triads.
Remember that tetrad chords are actually triads with an additional note that can be a minor seventh (b7) or a major seventh (7). But, playing these triads don't have much interest.
In order to get more intersting colors, we'll take three tetrad chords better known as seventh chords (minor 7, major 7 and dominant 7) representing the degrees II, V and I of the sequence we need and extract the triads starting on the third of each 7th chord. This is what we call a "diatonic substitution".
When we take the three highest notes of a minor seventh chord we obtain a major triad.
When taking the three highest notes of a dominant seventh chord we get a diminished triad.
When taking the three highest notes of a major seventh chord we get a minor triad.
This first II V I progression uses three triads in close positions involving three root voicings (not inverted). So, we get Fmaj over Dm7, Bdim over G7 and Emin over Cmaj7.
In this example you see three triad voicings in their first inversion. The first major triad over Dm7 can be renamed Fmaj7/A. The second triad can be written Bdim/D and the third triad over CMaj7 can be named Em/G.
This example takes three inverted triads. One important things when comping with triads, is to avoid unnecessary hand displacement on the guitar neck. You see below that the positions are very close to each other.
This example requires mixing two inverted voicings over Dm7 and Cmaj7 and a non-inverted one over G7. Once again the triad positions are close to each other.
Two inversions and one root voicing are used in it.
This exercise is to play open triads using two root voicings over G7 and Cmaj7 and an inverted one over Dm7. You see that Fmaj and Bdim share one note (F) as Bdim and Emin (B).
This one requires the use of two inverted open triads.
Three root voicings are used here.
Triads, although they contain only three notes, must not be ignored because they can be very interesting when intelligently used. As you can imagine there are a lot of combinations. Don't hesitate to experiment your own positions and try to mix open and close voicings in order to comp over your favorite jazz progressions.
This guitar method is a printable PDF with tabs, diagrams, theory and audio files providing 40 minor II V I jazz licks.
This pdf method for guitar contains 40 II V I jazz guitar lines with tab, standard notation, analysis, scale charts and audio files.
This guitar method is a printable PDF eBook contains 50 exercises with audio files, analysis, tab & standard notation on how to play over II-V-I chord progressions using different kind of voicings.
This package contains 3 PDF methods for jazz guitarists with tabs, audio files, analysis about the II V I progression.
This package contains a guitar method available as a PDF with tabs, audio files and theory providing 40 dominant jazz guitar lines for teachers and students.
This printable guitar method in PDF format contains 40 easy minor jazz guitar lines based on the Dorian mode.
Printable PDF eBook method containing 40 major jazz guitar licks with tab, standard notation and audio files for beginners and intermediates.
This package contains 120 jazz guitar lines based on diatonic modes as Mixolydian, Dorian and Ionian. PDF format with tabs, audio files and analysis.
This jazz guitar method about walking bass lines and chords is available as a PDF files containing 35 exercises with tabs, analysis and audio files
This printable PDF method provides 101 dominant arpeggio exercises with tab, theory and standard notation for the jazz, blues and rock guitarist.
This printable eBook method in PDF format provides 49 jazz solo transcriptions of the greatest jazz musicians of all times with TABS, standard notation, audio files and analysis both for guitar teachers and students.
This PDF method contains 11 guitar lessons with chord studies, tabs, standard notation, analysis & audio files about the main blues progressions used in jazz music.
This PDF eBook method contains 25 altered jazz guitar licks with tabs, patterns, scale charts and audio files to master, apply and develop the altered scale.
This printable method is available as a PDF file containing 40 easy dominant jazz-blues guitar lines with tabs, standard notation, analysis, audio files and scale charts.
This jazz guitar method is an eBook available as a PDF with standard notation, guitar tabs, diagrams, analysis, audio files and backing tracks. You will find in this booklet 25 easy jazz guitar lines with theory using common and rare pentatonic scales.
You will find here an eBook available in PDF containing 25 soul jazz and hard bop guitar licks in the style of Grant Green, Melvin Sparks, George Benson. These jazz lines come with tabs, standard notation, guitar neck diagrams, backing track for practice and 25 audio files for each riff.
This eBook PDF with audio files contains 25 dominant diminished jazz guitar patterns using the half-whole diminished scale and diminished 7th arpeggios.
This Printable PDF eBook available for free download contains 6 easy jazz guitar licks with tabs/notation, youtube video link and analysis about the tritone substitution.