The Major Scale aka Ionian Mode | Guitar Lesson With Diagrams, Theory & Lines
What's The Ionian Mode?
The Ionian mode is the first of the seven musical modes and the most known among all the types of major scales. The other Greek modes are Dorian, Phrygian, Lydian, Mixolydian, Aeolian and Locrian. The Ionian mode has exactly the same notes as the major scale.
|C Ionian mode||C||D||E||F||G||A||B|
|Formula||1||2 (9)||3||4 (11)||5||6 (13)||7|
(W = whole step ; H = half step)
As you can see in the chart above the major scale consists of a tonic (1), second (2), major third (3), fourth (4), fifth (5), sixth (6) and major seventh (7). Note that the ninth, eleventh and thirteenth correspond to the second, fourth and the sixth.
It is very important to know how is constructed the major scale in order to be able to build any other major scale. You have to memorize the order of whole steps and half-steps which is W-W-H-W-W-W-H.
How To Apply The Ionian Mode?
You can apply the Ionian mode over any major chords as : Major (maj), major seventh (M7) , major sixth (M6 or 6) , major ninth (M9), six/nine (6/9).
Ionian Mode Guitar Lesson (major scale) - Tutorial With Scale & Chord Shapes, Patterns and Licks
40 Major (Ionian) Jazz Guitar Licks - PDF eBook and Audio Files - Trailer
Ionian Mode Guitar Diagrams
There are many ways to play the Ionian mode on the guitar. Here are four recommended one octave shapes.
- This first pattern has roots (R) on the sixth and the fourth string.
- The second shape has roots on the fifth and third string.
- The third form has roots on the fourth and second string.
- The fourth graphic has roots on the third and first string.
You need to know that each scale has a tonic note, this is the main note that a scale is build from, it gives its name to a scale.
To understand and hear correctly the sound of the major scale, it is better to play these patterns starting with the tonic (orange note in the diagram).
Ionian Mode and Major triad Chord - Audio file
For example, to play the C major scale starting with the lowest tonic (on the sixth string) you must put your second finger at the eighth fret on the sixth string.
Now you are ready to play each note of the scale from the lowest root to the highest. It's a basic approach indeed, there are many tips for practicing scales.
Ionian Guitar Diagrams | Two-octave Shapes
The two diagrams on the right show how to play the Ionian mode within two octaves.
One important thing to do when you practice scales is to sing notes while playing them on guitar. Indeed, this is an effective way to reinforce the link between what you play and what you hear.
This technique will help you to develop your musical ear. You can apply the singing/playing technique to all your guitar solos and improvisations.
Ionian Mode Guitar Shapes | 3 Notes Per String (3NPS)
Here are seven diagrams related to the seven major scales positions starting on each degree of the scale. The examples are in G major, all the shapes are movable, so you have to play them in all keys.
Notice that each shape can be seen as a mode of the major scale Ionian (Shape 1), Dorian (shape 2), Phrygian (shape 3), Lydian (shape 4), Mixolydian (shape 5), Aeolian (shape 6) and Locrian (shape 7). In that case the orange note (1) represent the Parent Major Scale (PMS).
Chords of The Major Scale (Harmonization)
In music theory, harmonization is the process of building chords from a given scale using common formulas. Here are the seven chords built from each degree of the major scale:
Triad chords : These chords are built with three notes stacked in thirds.
Seventh chords or tetrads : They are made of four notes stacked in thirds.
In the key of C, the C major 7 chord is built by stacking C, E, G and B respectively root (1), major third (3), perfect fifth (5) and major seventh (7). Go to see the blog post about the major scale harmonization.
|C major scale||C||D||E||F||G||A||B|
Seventh chords built from the C major scale
|Chords||Notes||Formula (arpeggios)||Extensions||Related Mode|
- C major scale : C-D-E-F-G-A-B
- Db major scale : Db-Eb-F-Gb-Eb-Bb-C
- D major scale : D-E-F#-G-A-B-C#
- Eb major scale : Eb-F-G-Ab-Bb-C-D
- E major scale : E-F#-G#-A-B-C#-D#
- F major scale : F-G-A-Bb-C-D-E
- F# major scale : F#-G#-A#-B-C#-D#-E#
- Gb major scale : Gb-Ab-Bb-Cb-Db-Eb-F
- G major scale : G-A-B-C-D-E-F#
- Ab major scale : Ab-Bb-C-Db-Eb-F-G
- A major scale : A-B-C#-D-E-F#-G#
- Bb major scale : Bb-C-D-Eb-F-G-A
- B major scale : B-C#-D#-E-F#-G#-A#
Related Chords and Arpeggios
How To Build Chords And Arpeggios From The Major Scale?
You must be able to write and play any major chord and arpeggio derived from the major scale.
- C major triad / chord : consists of a root (C) major third (E) and perfect fifth (G).
- Notation : C, CM, C major.
|C major triad / chord||C||E||G|
- C major seventh arpeggio / chord : root (C) major third (E), perfect fifth (G) and major seventh (B).
- Notation : CM7, Cma7, Cmaj7, C?.
|C major seventh arpeggio / chord||C||E||G||B|
- C major sixth arpeggio / chord : root (C) major third (E), perfect fifth (G) and sixth (A).
- Notation : CM6, Cma6, Cmaj6
|C major sixth arpeggio / chord||C||E||G||A|
- C major ninth arpeggio / chord : root (C) major third (E), perfect fifth (G), major seventh (B) and ninth (D)
- Notation : CM9, Cma9, Cmaj9.
|C major ninth arpeggio / chord||C||E||G||B||D|
- C major eleventh arpeggio / chord : root (C) major third (E), perfect fifth (G), major seventh (B), ninth (D) and eleventh (11).
- Notation : CM11, Cma11, Cmaj11.
|C major eleventh arpeggio / chord||C||E||G||B||D||F|
- C major thirteenth arpeggio / chord : root (C) major third (E), perfect fifth (G), major seventh (B), ninth (D), eleventh (F) and thirteenth (A).
- Notation : CM13, Cma13, Cmaj13.
|C major thirteenth arpeggio / chord||C||E||G||B||D||F||A|
The following provides a bunch of exercises that will help you practice the major scale on guitar. The first four exercises show how to play triads and tetrads built on each degree of the major scale.
The six other examples are built with 2-note intervals . They will help you learn your scales in diatonic intervals as seconds, thirds, fourths, fifths, sixths and sevenths.
Exercise 1 - Ionian Mode in Triad Chords
In the following audio clip the C major scale in harmonized in triads giving seven chords (drop 2). Try to do this in all twelve keys.
Exercise 2 - Ionian Mode in Triad Arpeggios
In this example, each chord of the C major scale is arpeggiated.
Exercise 3 - Ionian Mode in Seventh Arpeggios
The Ionian mode is harmonized in seventh chords, providing 4 chord types : Major7, min7, dom7 and m7b5.
Exercise 4 - Ionian Mode in Seventh Arpeggios
In this one you can clearly hear each tone of each chord of the major scale.
The arpeggios are played in order (I-II-III-IV,etc), but you can try to mix them and create new changes as I-III-V-VII or I-VI-II-V etc.
Exercise 5 - Major Scale in Seconds
The exercises below are based on the notes of the C major scale. It is essential to practice them in twelve keys, in ascending and descending movements.
In this first example the major scale is played in intervals of seconds.
Exercise 6 - Major Scale in Thirds
Playing the major scale in thirds gives this interval pattern : 1-3-2-4-3-5-4-6-5-7-6-8 etc. The line given is ascending, why not try to play it descending ?
Exercise 7 - Major Scale in Fourths
The fingering is a little bit more difficult when playing in intervals of fourths.
Exercise 8 - Major Scale in Fifths
This exercise is played in position, within the span of 3 frets. You don't need to move you left hand.
Exercise 9 - Major Scale in Sixths
Using large intervals as sixths and sevenths into your improvisations will make your lines more interesting and melodic.
Exercise 10 - Major Scale in Sevenths
In terms of picking you can play these exercises in alternate picking (down/up) or with your pick by alternate your thumb and index finger.
Ionian Line #1
This line is built with the C ionian mode (C major scale if you prefer). You can hear a Cmaj7 arpeggio in it (C-E-G-B).
You can try to play it on the I chord of a II V I sequence for example.
Major Line #2
This major line highlights two interesting tones which will give more interest to your playing. These two tones are the eleventh (F) and the thirteenth (A).
Major Line #3
This easy major lick starts with the ninth (G) of C major. Be sure to play these major lines in twelve keys.
Feel free to add notes, hand effect as slides, pull-off, etc... and above all, play what you hear.
Printable eBooks - PDF
This PDF eBook provides over 550 guitar chord shapes. This is the perfect reference guide to understand how chords are built and how to play them on guitar.
This printable PDF is a method dedicated to guitarists of all styles who want to learn the most important types of arpeggios.
This handbook for guitar players is intended both for teachers and students. It includes 126 guitar shapes for mastering triads.
This bundle contains 4 PDF methods for a total of 170 exercises with tabs & audio files for practicing scales, licks & chords over the famous 2-5-1 progression.
This package contains 120 jazz guitar lines based on diatonic modes as Mixolydian, Dorian and Ionian. PDF format with tabs, audio files and analysis.
In this package you'll get a printable PDF Method with tabs, notation, analysis, scale shapes and audio files related to 30 smooth jazz guitar licks.
This pdf method for guitar contains fourteen 2 5 1 jazz guitar lines with tab, standard notation, analysis, scale charts and audio files.
This guitar method is a printable PDF eBook containing 50 exercises with audio files, analysis, tab & standard notation.
This PDF method contains 40 exercices with tabs, scores and audio files for practicing jazz guitar chords over the minor 2 5 1 progression.
This guitar method is a printable PDF with tabs, diagrams, theory and audio files providing 40 minor 2 5 1 jazz patterns.
PDF guitar method with tabs, audio files and theory providing 40 dominant jazz guitar lines for teachers and students.
This printable guitar method in PDF format contains 40 easy minor jazz guitar lines based on the Dorian mode.
Printable PDF eBook method containing 40 major jazz guitar licks with tab, standard notation and audio files for beginners and intermediates.
This jazz guitar method about walking bass lines and chords is available as a PDF files containing 35 exercises with tabs, analysis and audio files
This printable PDF method provides 101 dominant arpeggio exercises with tab, theory and standard notation for the jazz, blues and rock guitarist.
This printable eBook method in PDF format provides 49 jazz solo transcriptions of the greatest jazz musicians. Tab, standard notation, audio files & analysis.
This PDF method contains 11 guitar lessons with chord studies, tabs, standard notation, analysis & audio files about the main blues progressions used in jazz music.
This PDF eBook method contains 25 altered jazz guitar licks with tabs, patterns, scale charts and audio files to master, apply and develop the altered scale.
This printable method is available as a PDF file containing 40 easy dominant jazz-blues guitar lines with tabs, standard notation, analysis, audio files and scale charts.
This jazz guitar method is an eBook available as a PDF with standard notation, guitar tabs, diagrams, analysis, audio files and backing tracks. You will find in this booklet 25 easy jazz guitar lines with theory using common and rare pentatonic scales.
You will find here an eBook available in PDF containing 25 soul jazz and hard bop guitar licks in the style of Grant Green, Melvin Sparks, George Benson. These jazz lines come with tabs, standard notation, guitar neck diagrams, backing track for practice and 25 audio files for each riff.
This eBook PDF with audio files contains 25 dominant diminished jazz guitar patterns using the half-whole diminished scale and diminished 7th arpeggios.
This Printable PDF eBook available for free download contains 6 easy jazz guitar licks with tabs/notation, youtube video link and analysis about the tritone substitution.
This giant guitar poster for any guitar player, student or instructor contains colorful arpeggio diagrams.
This guitar poster contains eighteen neck diagrams representing the most used scales in music.
This giant printed color poster contains 63 guitar chord diagrams for jazz players, students, teachers and schools.
Guitar reference poster about Greek modes for guitar teachers, students and music schools.
Last edited: 2021-05-17