The Locrian mode | Guitar Lesson, Theory, Diagrams and Scale Charts
What's the Locrian Scale?
The Locrian mode is the seventh mode of the major scale. It has a particular sound because of the b2, b3, b5, b6 and b7. It is the least used, and probably the most misunderstood of all of the modes of the major scale.
The Locrian mode is usually played over minor seventh flat ninth chords (m7b5), in a minor II-V-I sequence for example.
|B Locrian mode||B||C||D||E||F||G||A|
|Formula||1||b2 (b9)||b3||4 (11)||b5||b6 (b13)||b7|
(W = whole step ; H = half step)
The four guitar shapes show how you can play the Locrian scale starting on the sixth, fifth, fourth or third string.
For a better understanding of this mode, it is recommended to play these patterns starting with the root note (R). The root is a very important note which gives its name to a scale.
Locrian Mode and Diminished triad Chord - Audio file
Locrian Mode Two Octave Shapes
Now you have tackled the one octave shapes, you can practice the following two octave shapes.
To practice the Locrian mode in different keys, you just have to move the root (R) to the desired tonality keeping the same intervals.
Locrian Mode | 3 Notes Per String | 7 Shapes
Reflecting the sequence H-W-W-H-W-W-W we get the Locrian scale in all the 12 keys. Each scale consists of a root (1), minor second (b2) or flat ninth (b9), minor third (b3), fourth (4) / eleventh (11), diminished fifth (b5), minor sixth (b6) / flat thirteenth (b13) and minor seventh (b7).
|A Locrian Mode||A,Bb,C,D,Eb,F,G|
|Bb Locrian Mode||Bb, Cb, Db, Eb, Fb, Gb, Ab|
|B Locrian Mode||B,C,D,E,F,G,A|
|C Locrian Mode||C,Db,Eb,F,Gb,Ab,Bb|
|Db Locrian Mode||Db, Ebb, Fb, Gb, Abb, Bbb, Cb,|
|D Locrian Mode||D,Eb,F,G,Ab,Bb,C|
|Eb Locrian Mode||Eb, Fb, Gb, Abb Bbb, Cb, Db|
|E Locrian Mode||E,F,G,A,Bb,C,D|
|F Locrian Mode||E#,F#,G#,A#,B,C#,D#|
|F# Locrian Mode||F#,G,A,B,C,D,E|
|G Locrian Mode||G,Ab,Bb,C,Db,Eb,F|
|G# Locrian Mode||G#,A,B,C#,D,E,F#|
It can be interesting to compare the Locrian scale with four others Locrian modes.
- The first is the second mode of the harmonic minor scale, its name is Locrian natural 6 mode. It is built with a natural 6 in place of a minor 6. It is spelled 1 - b2 - b3 - 4 - b5 - 6 - b7
|Formula||1||b2 (b9)||b3||4 (11)||b5||6 (13)||b7|
- The second Locrian mode is called super Locrian bb7 aka Ultra Locrian mode. This is the seventh mode of the harmonic minor scale and it is spelled 1 - b2 - b3 - b4 - b5 - b6 - bb7. You can see that it is built the same as the Locrian mode but has a diminished seventh (bb7) instead a minor seventh (b7).
- The third is the Locrian #2 mode, it is the sixth mode of the melodic minor scale. As its name implies it has a major second (#2) instead of a minor second (b2). The formula is 1 - 2 - b3 - 4 - b5 - b6 - b7.
|Formula||1||2 (#2 or #9)||b3||4 (11)||b5||b6 (b13)||b7|
- The last one belongs to the Bebop scales family. The Locrian bebop scale is an octatonic scale (built with eight notes). It is spelled 1 - b2 - b3 - 4 - b5 - 5 - b6 - b7. The Locrian bebop scale has an extra note between the flat five (b5) and the minor sixth (b6). This is the Locrian mode with a supplementary note, the fifth (5).
Related Arpeggio and Chords
The Locrian mode produces a diminished triad and a half-diminished arpeggio. Diminished triads consist of root (1) and minor third (b3) and a diminished fifth (b5).
Add the minor seventh (b7) and you get a half-diminished chord (tetrad). Half-diminished arpeggios are made up of a root, minor third, diminished fifth and minor seventh (b7).
|B Locrian mode||B||C||D||E||F||G||A||Chord|
|Formula||1||b2 (b9)||b3||4 (11)||b5||b6 (b13)||b7|
|B diminished triad||1||x||b3||x||b5||x||x||Bmb5|
|B half-diminished 7 tetrad||1||x||b3||x||b5||x||b7||Bm7b5|
|B half-diminished arpeggio||1||x||b3||x||b5||x||b7|
The Locrian mode is basically used over half-diminished chords (m7b5) however, these chors are rarely employed. So, you have to know that a half-diminished arpeggios can be used to highlight the ninth (9) of a dominant 7th chord.
For example, you can play a E half-diminished arpeggio (E-G-Bb-D) over a C dominant seventh chord (C7) starting from its third.
|E half diminished arpeggio||E||G||Bb||D|
|C dominant 7th chord||C||E||G||Bb|
- E of E half diminished arpeggio is the third of C7
- G is the fifth
- Bb is the minor seventh
- D is the ninth.
Another common jazz trick is to apply a half diminished arpeggio to a minor seventh chord starting on the third of this chord. This technique allows to highlight the thirteenth of a minor chord.
For example, let's take a D minor seventh (Dm7) chord built with D, F, A and C respectively root (1), minor third (b3), perfect fifth (5) and minor seventh (b7). The sixth of D is B which can also be named thirteenth (13). So now you just have to play a B half diminished arpeggio, which is B, D, F and A.
|B half diminished arpeggio||B||D||F||A|
|D minor seventh chord||D||F||A||C|
- B is the thirteenth of Dm
- D is the root
- F is the third
- A is the fifth
Here is a basic major II-V-I sequence in the key of C to understand the use of the half diminished arpeggio over a minor seventh chord. In this context, we will not play the whole B Locrian scale over the Dm7 chord, but only a B half diminished arpeggio.
As you can see the four notes in orange in bar 1 represent this arpeggio. In this example, it is inverted, it starts with the third (D) which is the root of D minor seventh.
How to Use the Locrian Mode in a Minor II V I Progression?
We can see in this minor II-V-I chord progression the basic application of the Locrian mode over a Dm7b5 chord.
- Bar one : D descending Locrian mode (D-Eb-F-G-Ab-Bb-C) with a passing tone (A).
- Bar two : B diminished 7th arpeggio (B-D-F-Ab) and chromatic line (F-F#-G). In this line the B diminished arpeggio starts on the third of G7b9.
- Bar three : Fifth and b3 of Cm.
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Last edited: 03/16/2021