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The seven modes of the major scale | Greek modes | Ecclesiastical modes | Jazz guitar lesson with diagrams
- By Stef Ramin
- On 12/07/2016
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Ecclesiastical modes, also named "Greek modes"or "church modes" or "Gregorian modes" formed in the Middle Ages a set of scales whose use has weakened because of the appearance of the major / minor tonal system. Several centuries later these modes have reappeared. They are very used in jazz improvisation as scale of chords and modal playing.
The seven modes
Modes are built by moving the root on each degree of a scale. Each mode as a specific succession of tones and half-tones corresponding to a chord.
The most important modes are based on the major scale, they are named :
- Ionian (major). Also known as major scale. Here is the formula 1-2-3-4-5-6-7
- Dorian (minor): 1-2-b3-4-5-6-b7
- Phrygian (minor): 1-b2-b3-4-5-b6-b7
- Lydian (major): 1-2-b3-#4-5-b6-7
- Mixolydian (dominant) :1-2-3-4-5-6-b7
- Aeolian (minor) : 1-2-b3-4-5-b6-7
- Locrian (half-diminished) : 1-b2-b3-4-b5-b6-b7
Harmonization of the major scale
In music theory, harmonization is the process of building chords from a given scale using common formulas. Here are the seven chords built from each degrees of the major scale:
Triad chords : These chords are built with three notes stacked in thirds.
Quadrad chords : They are made of four notes stacked in thirds too.
In the key of C, the C major chord is built by stacking C, E, G and B respectively root (1), major third (3), perfect fifth (5) and major seventh (7).
|C major scale||C||D||E||F||G||A||B|
Quadrads chords in the key of C major.
That means each mode corresponds to a chord :
- Ionian mode : Major chords
- Dorian : Minor chords (b7 - 13)
- Phrygian : Minor chords (b7 - b13)
- Lydian : Major chords (#11)
- Mixolydian : Dominant chords
- Aeolian : Minor chords
- Locrian : Half-diminished chords (b5 - b9 - b13)
The ionian mode
The ionian mode is the first of the seven musical modes. The C ionian mode has exactly the same notes as the C major scale and surely the first scale to learn for a beginner musician. It is made up of seven notes related to seven degrees :
|C Ionian mode||C||D||E||F||G||A||B|
(W = whole step ; H = half step)
You can play the ionian mode over major chords :
Major, major seventh (M7) , major sixth (M6 or 6) , major ninth (M9), major six/nine (M6/9), sus 2, sus 4.
Ionian guitar diagrams
The dorian mode
The dorian mode is the second of the seven musical modes. It is a minor type scale because of its minor third (b3). It is often the first choice to play over minor chords and one of the most important scale to know for a jazz guitar improviser. It is made up of seven notes including a minor third (b3) and minor seventh (b7).
The dorian mode has the same notes as the ionian mode starting on the second degree.
|D Dorian mode||D||E||F||G||A||B||C|
Dorian guitar diagrams
The phrygian mode
The phrygian mode is the third mode of the major scale. It is one of the three minor modes of the major scale. These modes are dorian, phrygian and aeolian (natural minor scale). The phrygian mode is a minor type scale because of its b3. It can be played over minor chords but it is rarely used because of its b2 scale tone. This mode has the same notes as the ionian mode, it is the third mode of the major scale. You just have to start on the third of the ionian mode to get the phrygian mode.
|E Phrygian mode||E||F||G||A||B||C||D|
Phrygian guitar diagrams
The lydian mode
The lydian mode is the fourth mode of the major scale. It is very used to play over major chords, it is a major type scale (because of its major third). The lydian mode has a very interesting sound because of its #4 (or #11), it is similar to the ionian mode but has a raised fourth (#4) instead of a perfect fourth. Playing the F lydian mode over a C major chord is the same as playing the C ionian mode starting by the fourth (F). Lydian mode gets interesting when it is played over a major chord, for example playing a F lydian scale over a CM7 brings tension because of the raised fourth / Raised eleventh (#4).
|F Lydian mode||F||G||A||B||C||D||E|
Lydian guitar diagrams
The mixolydian mode
The mixolydian mode is the fifth mode of the major scale. This is a major type scale (also called dominant scale) because of its major third (3) and its minor seventh (b3). It has the same notes as the ionian mode except the minor seventh (b7). This is the mode to know when you want to play over dominant chords (not altered). This mode is widely used in jazz and blues music it's one of the most important mode to master.
|G mixolydian mode||G||A||B||C||D||E||F|
Mixolydian guitar diagrams
The aeolian mode
The aeolian mode (also called "natural minor scale" or "relative minor scale) is the sixth mode of the major scale, it is known as a relative minor to the major scale (ionian mode). This mode can be formed by using the same notes as the major scale, but starting and ending on the 6th degree of the major scale. You can consider this 6th degree as the root.This is the third of the three minor modes (aeolian, dorian and phrygian) of the major scale and a very important minor mode to master. It has a minor third (b3), a minor seventh (b7) and a minor sixth (b6).
|A aeolian mode||A||B||C||D||E||F||G|
Aeolian guitar diagrams
The Locrian mode
The locrian mode is the seventh mode of the major scale. It has a particular sound because of its b2, its b3, b5, b6 and b7. It is the least used, and probably the most misunderstood out of all of the modes of the major scale. It is usually played over minor seventh flat ninth chords (m7b5), in a minor II-V-I sequence for example.
|B locrian mode||B||C||D||E||F||G||A|
Locrian guitar diagrams
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